Young Child as Person


by Martha Snyder, Ross Snyder, and Ross Snyder, Jr.

Edited by Maryhelen Snyder, Ph.D. with a new Forward by Jean Baker Miller, M.D. and Judith Jordan, Ph.D.

For an entire copy of "The Young Child as Person" in PDF format, click here.

Table of Contents:

  1. Forward

  2. Introduction

  3. Preface

PART I: Toward Spirited Existence

   1.  Essential Convictions about Children

          * Every Child Wants to Function

          * Every Child Wants to Be in Relationship

          * There is an Exciting World to Explore

   2.  Pulse of Life

          * Mystery of Life

          * Bodies

          * Death

          * Monsters: Separating the Unreal from the Real

          * Ideas

          * Celebrating and Music

   3.  How Healthy Conscience Develops

          * Caring Deeply and Understanding Others

          * Becoming Able to Feel, Identify, and Handle Feelings

          * Becoming a Personal Center and Realizing Competence

          * Helping Establish a Justice Culture

                o The Child and Teacher Form a World

                o Love That Envelops All

                o A Justice Culture in the Process of Becoming

                o Freedom to Make Decisions

                o Defending One's Integrity

                o Standing Up for Justice for Someone Else

                o Power-With

          * Developing Honest Inner Speech

          * The Teacher as an Integrity

          * Trueing-up the Self

          * Hearing the Call of Possibility

          * Preferring the Highest and Best.  Truth-Work

          * Interiorizing Significant Adults

          * How this Approach Differs from Some Others

                o Self-Limiting and Destructive Consciences

                      + The Punitive Conscience

                      + The Paranoid-Pessimistic Conscience

                      + The Other Directed Conscience

                      + The Exploitive-Opportunistic Conscience

                      + The Disengaged Conscience

          * How Self-Limiting & Destructive Consciences Come About

          * Healthy Conscience:  The Caring-Constructive Conscience

   4.  A Child is a Life World

          * Organizing Centers of a Life World

          * The Growing That the Child Is Working On

                o Feelings About Self

          * The People and Objects in the Child's World

                o Method of Meeting Life: Life-Style

                o Meanings

                o Future

          * The Life World Concept for Teachers and Parents

   5.  Breaking Out of Limitations

          * Phony Identity

          * The World as Obstacle

          * Trapped by Minute Control

          * The World is Too Much for Me

          * Reaching into Exuberance

          * Compulsive Drive to Organize a Life World

          * Inner Panic

          * Freedom from Anger

          * Living Space for Children

PART II: Function of the Teacher as Significant Adult

   1.   Enabling Through the Understanding Mode of Conversation

          * Understanding Verbal Content

          * Hearing and Helping a Child Clarify Feelings

                o Deeper Than Verbal Content

                o Processing  - Not Just Expressing

                o Being Understood – Enabling the Child to Function

          * Understanding The Child's Existence Situation

                o The Growing the Child is Working On

          * Reconstructing an Episode With Feelings and Intentions

   2.  The Art of Understanding

          * Not Understanding

                o Probing

                o Instructing

                o Evaluating

                o Supporting

          * Practice in Understanding

          * Understanding Verbal Content

          * Hearing and Processing Feelings

          * Understanding the Existence Situation

          * Reconstructing the Episode with Feelings and Intentions

   3.  How Understanding Helps the Child

          * Gives the Child Relationship and Words

          * Strengthens the Child's Power to Act

          * Helps the Child to Recover from Setbacks

          * Gives the Child's Hopes and Plans a Chance

          * Develops Honest Inner Speech

          * Builds Conscience

          * Summary

   4. An Integrity that Can be Encountered

          * Not Allowing Devious Behavior to Succeed

          * Not Granting Special Privileges

          * Not Yielding to Ruthless Power

          * What an Integrity is

   5.  Being a Presence

          * A Synopsis of Six Basic Concepts

                o Justice Culture

                o Conscience

                o Sociality

                o Life World

                o Being

                o Presence

          * Six Steps for Solving Any Conflict Situation

   6.  About the Authors

Toward the Development of Healthy Conscience